Patrick Brading; Ahmed El-Gabbas; Samy Zalat; Francis Gilbert (2009). Biodiversity economics: the value of pollination services to Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Biology, 11, 45-51.
Pollinator populations are under severe pressure worldwide because of man-made intensification in land use, including the use of pesticides and fertilizers. The majority of wild and crop plants are fully or partially dependent on pollinators for their
reproduction. Loss of pollinators has already caused measurable declines in the populations of many wild plants in Europe. Many Egyptian crops are fully or partially dependent on pollinators for their yields, and data exist on the market values
of Egyptian crops. We therefore use these to estimate the 2004 costs to the Egyptian economy of a catastrophic loss of pollinators. The annual cost to the Egyptian economy of los ing its pollinators would be approximately LE 13.5 billion ($2.4
billion), 3.3% of the 2003 GDP.